A comparison of the knowledge-based innovation systems in the economies of South Korea and the Netherlands

using Triple helix Indicators[1]


Scientometrics 65(1), (2005; forthcoming)


Han Woo Park[2]

YeungNam University

South Korea


Heung Deug Hong[3]

KangWon National University

South Korea


Loet Leydesdorff[4]

University of Amsterdam

the Netherlands





           This paper elaborates on the Triple Helix model for measuring the emergence of a knowledge base of socio-economic systems. The ‘knowledge infrastructure’ is measured using multiple indicators: webometric, scientometric, and technometric. The paper employs this triangulation strategy to examine the current state of the innovation systems of South Korea and the Netherlands. These indicators are thereafter used for the evaluation of the systemness in configurations of university-industry-government relations. South Korea is becoming somewhat stronger than the Netherlands in terms of scientific and technological outputs and in terms of the knowledge-based dynamics; South Korea’s portfolio is more traditional than that of the Netherlands. For example, research and patenting in the biomedical sector is underdeveloped. In terms of the Internet-economy, the Netherlands seem oriented towards global trends more than South Korea; this may be due to the high component of services in the Dutch economy.


Key words: Triple Helix, knowledge-based, webometric, scientometric, technometric,



[1] The authors acknowledge that this research was supported by the Korean Research Foundation (KRF-2003-042-H00003). They are grateful to Sung Jo Hong for his collaboration in the project.

[2] hanpark@yumail.ac.kr


[3] hdhong@kangwon.ac.kr

[4] loet@leydesdorff.net